Glacial Acrylic Acid Monomer (GAA) is an unsaturated carboxylic acid co-monomer used as a building block to produced acid functional and crosslinked acrylic copolymers and polyacrylic acids. GAA readily copolymerizes with acrylic and methacrylic esters, ethylene, vinyl acetate, styrene, butadiene, acrylonitrile, maleic esters, vinyl chloride and vinylidene chloride. Copolymers which contain GAA can be solubilized or exhibit improved dispersions in water; the carboxylic acid moiety can be used for coupling or crosslinking reactions, and improved adhesion. GAA copolymers are used in the form of their free acid, ammonium salts or alkali salts. These polymeric uses for GAA account for approximately 45 % of the consumption of acrylic acid monomer (the manufacture of acrylate esters is the other major use).