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Chemicals & Polymers Blog

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Durable, Ambient Temperature, Self Crosslinkable Acrylic Emulsions Based on DAAM/ADH

The leading crosslinking technology for acrylic emulsion polymers is ambient temperature crosslinking chemistry based on diacetone acrylamide (DAAM) and adipic acid dihydrazide (ADH) monomers. This technology, known as “keto-hydrazide crosslinking,” involves the direct reaction of the pendant ketone moiety on the DAAM-acrylic polymer segment with the hydrazide moiety of the ADH, with the evaporation of water in the film-forming process. 

The highest adoption of this ambient temperature, self-crosslinking technology has been in high-durability paints and coatings for architecture, wood and concrete surfaces, and more. The DAAM/ADH pair is also used in crosslinkable sizing agents, thickeners, adhesives, and sealants.

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Caprolactone-Modified (Meth)acrylate Monomers

At Gantrade, we offer a variety of caprolactone-modified (meth)acrylate monomers. The caprolactone-modified acrylates (FA-series) and methacrylates (FM-series) are reactive oligomeric monomers containing caprolactone chains with a primary hydroxyl end-functionality.  

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Methyl Acrylate:  A Special Acrylic Monomer

Methyl acrylate (MA) is the fourth most-used of the basic acrylic esters for production of acrylic and vinyl-acrylic resins, surpassed only by butyl acrylate, ethyl acrylate and 2-ethylhexylacrylate.  As the lowest-molecular weight member of the homologous acrylic ester family, MA also finds uses as a starting material for the synthesis of other acrylates and derivatives ( these often involve transesterification reactions, or “Michael Additions” to the acrylic double-bond). 

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Vinyl Acetate Monomer (VAM):  A Highly Versatile Polymerization Intermediate

Vinyl acetate monomer (VAM) is a significant intermediate used in the production of a wide range of resins and polymers for paints & coatings, adhesives, glues & sealants, elastomers, textile finishes, paper coatings, binders, films, and a myriad of other industrial and consumer applications.  It efficiently homo-polymerizes to polyvinyl acetate (PVA),  and VAM can be used in numerous random copolymers and terpolymers such as ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers, vinyl-acrylic resins, vinyl acetate-acrylic acid copolymers, and vinyl acetate-vinyl chloride copolymers.  With the wide diversity of polymerization options, VAM has allowed the design of products with a wide spectrum of cost and performance profiles.

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Ask the Experts:  Glacial Acrylic Acid (GAA) Monomer

Glacial Acrylic Acid Monomer, commonly known by the acronym GAA, is an unsaturated carboxylic acid co-monomer used by Gantrade customers as a building block to produce acid-functional and crosslinked acrylic copolymers and polyacrylic acids. These copolymers and polyacrylic acids are then used to optimize a number of products including finishes, coatings, adhesives, sealants, inks, flocculants, thickeners, dispersing agents, lubricants, saturants and plastics. 

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Comparing Glacial Acrylic Acid and Glacial Methacrylic Acid

Glacial acrylic acid (GAA) and glacial methacrylic acid (GMAA) are polymerizable, unsaturated, monocarboxylic acid monomers.  Virtually all acrylic copolymers produced commercially contain either of these two monomers at some level, depending on the specific attributes desired in the copolymers.

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Applications of N-Butyl Acrylate

N-butyl acrylate (BA) is the largest-volume acrylate ester used in the production of all-acrylic, vinyl acrylic and styrene acrylic copolymers.  BA offers price-value and accounts for about 60 percent of the global acrylic ester monomer demand, with a consumption volume of over 2,000 kilo tons.  

The other major acrylate esters include methyl acrylate (MA), ethyl acrylate (EA), and 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (2-EHA).  Butyl acrylate is used as a “soft-monomer” to improve low temperature properties and toughness. The major markets for BA are in paint & coatings, such as architectural and automotive coatings, followed by adhesives and sealants market.  Other application areas include inks, textile, paper and leather finishes, and caulks.

Another significant and growing segment for BA is in thermoplastic ethylene acrylate copolymers (EAC), at BA levels up to 35 % in copolymers.  EBA copolymers are used as a impact modifier and processing aid in thermoplastics improving properties such as toughness, flexibility, molding characteristics and part appearances.  End use applications include packaging, multilayer films and adhesives.

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N-Butyl Methacrylate: a Plasticizing Methacrylate Monomer

N-butyl methacrylate (n-BMA) is a versatile, plasticizing methacrylate monomer used in the production of homopolymers, copolymers and products that we see and use in everyday life.

As a homopolymer, we see poly (n-BMA) used in adhesives and as a polymeric plasticizer for harder resins.  Copolymer applications include water-borne industrial and architectural paints, textiles, paper & leather coatings, wood coatings, adhesives, inks, caulks, and sealants.  N-BMA also demonstrates flexibility, durability, UV, and moisture resistance in exterior decorative paints and automotive finishes.

In solvent based systems, it improves solubility of the copolymer resin.  Copolymers with methyl methacrylate (MMA), exhibit enhanced flexibility and toughness without the need for a plasticizer.

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Key Facts about Acrylate Monomers

Acrylate esters in general, which include butyl acrylate (BA), 2-ethylhexylacrylate (2-EHA), methyl methacrylate (MMA), butyl methacrylate (BMA), and others,  represent a versatile family of building blocks for thousands of copolymer compositions. Acrylic resins based on these monomers exhibit excellent weather resistance, high gloss and color retention, and durability. For these reasons, they are the preferred compositions for architectural and industrial coatings, automotive finishes and a wide variety of other applications.

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Applications of 2-Ethylhexyl Acrylate (2-EHA)

2-Ethylhexyl Acrylate (2-EHA ) is a highly versatile building block that readily copolymerizes with a wide variety of other acrylic and vinyl monomers to tailor specific high molecular weight copolymer properties for a diverse range of non-rigid applications.

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